By: Elena Grace Flores
Charter Change is constitutional reform in the Philippines, also known as Cha-cha, referring to the political and legal processes needed to amend the current 1987 Constitution of the Philippines. Federalism is where authority is shared between national and regional governments whereas Parliamentarianism is between an executive and legislative powers. A country can have both federal and parliamentary systems or just federal or parliamentary. These are the processes of the two systems:
In federal governments, national and multiple regional (state/provincial) governments have division of responsibilities. The national government hold some powers in various matters whereas regional bodies also have some jurisdictions over their territories. There are also shared authorities between them. Overall policies remain to be the responsibilities of the national government but a state can determine their local process applicable to their situation like the educational arrangement of public schools. However, policies pertaining to crimes are shared by both and overlapping can also happen to secure implementations of the law – such as in America, and other European and Latin American countries.
Parliamentarianism has three branches of government: legislative (policy making process), executive (implementation of laws and persecution of offenders), and judicial (determines rule of laws and examines their constitutionality?. These two systems of government work in many countries but in the Philippines, it’s really not the kind of system that is embraced by the people but the popularity of a leader endorsing such form. PGMA failed with Parliamentarianism – will Duterte make it for Federalism?