Case Study

I. Cisplatin, cisplatinum, or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum

(II), is a well-known chemotherapeutic anti-cancer drug. It has been used for the treatment of numerous human cancers including bladder, head and neck, lung, ovarian, and testicular cancers. It is effective against various types of cancers, including carcinomas, germ cell tumors, lymphomas, and sarcomas. The discovery of the anticancer activity of cisplatin {cis- [PtCl2(NH3)2]} in the 1960s and its subsequent clinical success generated interest in the use of metal compounds in cancer treatment. Its mode of action has been linked to its ability to crosslink with the purine bases on the DNA; interfering with DNA repair mechanisms, causing DNA damage, and subsequently inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. However, because of drug resistance and numerous undesirable side effects such as severe kidney problems, allergic reactions, decrease immunity to infections, gastrointestinal disorders, hemorrhage, and hearing loss especially in younger patients, other platinum-containing anti-cancer drugs such as carboplatin, oxaliplatin, and others, have also been used. Furthermore, combination therapies of cisplatin with other drugs have been highly considered to overcome drug resistance and reduce toxicity. I chose this case study because the topic of cisplatin and an anti-cancer drug is interesting to me. This topic can shed more light on the effects of the drug and how it can improve.

II. The scientific method is to observe, question, research, hypothesize, experiment, test hypothesis, and report. I believe that it did follow the scientific method because it followed the method close enough. They observed the effects of the cisplatin drug and how it could be used as an anti-cancer drug. They questioned the effects of it and how it worked. They researched what it could do and on possible better alternatives. They hypothesized about the substitutes that had less negative effects and there are clinical tests. A scientific study can be valid even if it did not follow the scientific method because the scientific method is only one way to research and attain information. There are other ways in which you can do research, experiment, and attain information. Science process skills include observing qualities, measuring quantities, sorting/classifying, inferring, predicting, experimenting, and communicating. The science process skills that can be applied to this case are observing qualities and experimenting. In this case, when cisplatin enters the body like a drug there is a chemical change. A chemical change is when a chemical reaction occurs and creates a new product while a physical change is when a matter changes form but not chemical identity. When the cisplatin drug enters the body there is a chemical change because the chemicals in the drugs react to the chemicals inside the body and causing different things to happen inside of the body. Using a model representing cisplatin molecules is absolutely essential. It is essential because they are used to test hypotheses and predict information. Often they are not accurate because the scientists may not have all the data. It is important that scientists test their models and be willing to improve them as new data comes to light. You can relate the use of this model to broaden our understanding of atoms because models help us to understand systems and their properties. For example, an atomic model represents what the structure of an atom could look like, based on what we know about how atoms behave. It is not necessarily a true picture of the exact structure of an atom. Models are often simplified. If nickel and palladium have similar properties to platinum, is it safe to say that they can be used as substitutes to platinum in synthesizing a drug similar to cisplatin

III. Overall cisplatin is a good enough anticancer drug for the present but it needs to be vastly improved so that the side effects of the drug aren’t felt any longer.

IV. https://static.nsta.org/connections/elementaryschool/200712TorresHandoutParentNSTAConn.pdfhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4146684/https://www.soas.ac.uk/cedep-demos/000_P506_RM_3736-Demo/unit1/page_12.htmhttps://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/575-scientific-modellinghttps://intl.siyavula.com/read/science/grade-10/the-atom/04-the-atom-02static.nsta.orgstatic.nsta.org

CASE STUDY 2 Cisplatin: The Invention of an Anticancer Drug

The discovery of the anticancer activity of cisplatin {cis- [PtCl2(NH3)2]} in the 1960s and its subsequent clinical success generated interest in the use of metal compounds in cancer treatment. Thousands of platinum compounds have since been prepared and evaluated as potential chemotherapeutic agents, although few have entered clinical use. A group of researchers at Michigan State University subsequently found that cisplatin could also be used to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. For the past twenty years, cisplatin has proven to be highly effective for the treatment of various cancers, particularly testicular cancer. Unfortunately, toxicity and drug resistance have become serious concerns, and research efforts continue in the hope of improving this drug. In spite of the widespread success of cisplatin, the search continues for new platinum drugs. This has been motivated by the desire to improve upon the clinical performance of cisplatin. The side effects associated with cisplatin treatment can be severe and may include toxicity to the kidney and nervous system, hearing difficulties, nausea, vomiting, and several others. In general, for a platinum drug to gain clinical approval, it must possess at least one distinct clinical advantage over cisplatin. Such advantages may include activity against cancers with intrinsic or acquired resistance to cisplatin treatment, reduced toxic side effects, or the ability to be administered orally.

Guide Questions for Analysis:

• Did it follow the scientific method? If so, how? How can a scientific study be valid if it does not follow the scientific method?

A: Yes it did because it followed the method close enough.

They observed the effects of the cisplatin drug and how it could be used as an anti-cancer drug. They questioned the effects of it and how it worked. They researched what it could do and on possible better alternatives. They hypothesized about the substitutes that had less negative effects and there are clinical tests.

A scientific study can be valid even if it did not follow the scientific method because the scientific method is only one way to research and attain information. There are other ways in which you can do research, experiment, and attain information.

• What science process skills are applied in this case? Elaborate on one and cite an instance where it is directly applicable.

A: The science process skills that applied to this case are observing qualities and experimenting.

Observing qualities: In this case, they have observed that when cisplatin enters the body like a drug there is a chemical change. A chemical change is when a chemical reaction occurs and creates a new product while a physical change is when a matter changes form but not chemical identity.

• Identify whether physical or chemical change is exhibited when cisplatin entered the body as a drug. Justify your answer.

A: When the cisplatin drug enters the body there is a chemical change because the chemicals in the drugs react to the chemicals inside the body and causing different things to happen inside of the body.

• Although it is not explicitly mentioned, scientists used models in studying the behavior of atoms. Is using a model in representing cisplatin molecule essential? If so, how can you relate the use of this model to broaden our understanding of atoms?

A: Using a model representing cisplatin molecules is absolutely essential. It is essential because they are used to test hypotheses and predict information.

• Platinum is used in the synthesis of cisplatin. If nickel and palladium have similar properties to platinum, is it safe to say that they can be used as substitutes to platinum in synthesizing a drug similar to cisplatin?

A: No. The side effects associated with cisplatin treatment can be severe and may include toxicity to the kidney and nervous system, hearing difficulties, nausea, vomiting, and several others. In general, for a platinum drug to gain clinical approval, it must possess at least one distinct clinical advantage over cisplatin. Such advantages may include activity against cancers with intrinsic or acquired resistance to cisplatin treatment, reduced toxic side effects, or the ability to be administered orally. In the case of nickel and palladium, thorough clinical studies are needed because they can trigger severe allergies.